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Thanks much. This is clean and clear. Most posts like this have a long list of arguments about what if. Frankly I don't care to read what if when I just want to do it. What if is another subject. Or what if I don't care about if's right now.

Thanks you one again,

in centos, worked. Thanks.

from root user's gnome-desktop's terminal window, i had to do this:

sudo -u ff -H xhost

sudo -u ff -H firefox

how can i run firefox, xchat, etc multiple internet applications by using a same non root username (for example, username: 'InternetApps') ?

I think it's part of the pack mentality thing that most humans have. The reason's why he picked Liverpool aren't really important, but the fact he now supports them and belongs to the Liverpool "family" are what matters. At a more extreme level, you get football supporters "proving" what dedicated fans they are by going to as many games as possible - thus proving how valuable they are to the "family"
They are encrypted in a vague attempt to prevent people playing them on whichever players they want. It's not to prevent piracy - a pirate can just make a bit-for-bit copy (including encryption), and it's exactly the same. It's purely to stop people playing DVDs on players that haven't been "authorised".
Give a man a fish and he will eat for a day. Give a man a rifle and he will say "Screw the damn sushi, I'm having steak tonight"
yeah i was curious lol

what is this site?

I was curious about the sight too, but to my disappointment the sight does not exist

ha ha - yep curious

Remove the adds! I can't even see the article title because of them =) (Matt)
And using my back button? Really? =)
To use or run other multiple internet applications as a non root or less privileged user, following can be done :

Create another user name "InternetApps", instead of "ff", in the way mentioned in the main article.

In this article (author 'Calum') & in user comment 3, replace the all word "ff" with "InternetApps".

List your other internet applications like this:

yourusername yourhostname=(InternetApps) NOPASSWD: /usr/bin/firefox, /usr/bin/xchat, /usr/bin/thunderbird

In my case i used 'root' as 'yourusername', and i used 'localhost' in place of 'yourhostname".

To run Firefox in centos, i used:

sudo -u InternetApps -H firefox &

To run thunderbird:

sudo -u InternetApps -H thunderbird &

... Now, enjoy safer websurfing & safer internet accessing.

This comment shared with you & submitted by Bry8Star.

I copied the "/usr/bin/firefox" script, then renamed that(copy) to "/usr/bin/firefox-InternetApps".

Using the visudo, add this '/usr/bin/firefox-InternetApps' into the NOPASSWD line.

If someone wants to further modify the 'firefox-InternetApps' script, then they can do so.

Now create a Firefox Profile inside firefox for 'InternetApps' user :

sudo -u InternetApps -H firefox-InternetApps -profilemanager -no-remote &

A window will appear, to allow you to add new Profile(s), create 'InternetApps'.

Start firefox & then exit from it.

Now following command will start firefox & take us inside the 'InternetApps' profile :

sudo -u InternetApps -H firefox-InternetApps -p InternetApps -no-remote &

I copied the "/usr/bin/firefox" script (not a link) file, then renamed that (copied) file to "firefox-ia", open "firefox-ia" with a text editor, keep only the top two lines, delete all other lines, then add our commandline, it should look like this:



sudo -u InternetApps -H firefox-InternetApps -p InternetApps -no-remote &

# end of file

Then simply type : "firefox-ia" , (without the quote symbols,) to run firefox (under a non root user and with a different firefox profile).

... This process worked on centos 5.6 firefox 3.6.17. ~ Bry8Star.

try using kdesu instead of su, it'll work without any of the other hacks, plus allowing anyone on 127.1 to connect to X isnt secure
Hey, I can see my house from up here!
Ceuta and Melilla people decided by themselves to be part of Spain. Gibraltar was just conquered.
Give a woman a fish and you'll feed her for a day. Teach a woman to fish, she'll refuse to learn, nag "You never bring me fish anymore" and when you explain why, she'll tell you she never really liked fish anyway.
I'll trust your calculations - but 0.5g of salt is what's in a slice of bread or packet of crisps, so it's not that much really. I actually thought it would be a lot higher until I contacted them.
I know that videos, music, or ISOs aren't random. See the asterisk at the end of the post.
Of course, there'll always be some mail servers that don't follow the RFCs properly.

Checking the logs, I noticed the following:

Sep 26 03:11:47 hosting postfix/smtpd[19263]: connect from[]
Sep 26 03:11:49 hosting postfix/smtpd[19263]: NOQUEUE: reject: RCPT from[]: 450 4.7.1 <>: Helo command rejected: Host not found; from=<> to=<a.user@a.domain> proto=ESMTP helo=<>
Sep 26 03:11:49 hosting postfix/smtpd[19263]: disconnect from[]

Now, according to the SMTP RFC (

The domain name given in the EHLO command MUST BE either a primary
host name (a domain name that resolves to an A RR) or, if the host
has no name, an address literal as described in section

So why isn't there a DNS entry for

Anyway, to allow these broken setups to skip the "reject_unknown_hostname" in "smtpd_helo_restrictions", (as I don't want to disable it - it catches 95% of the spam) - you need to do the following:
* In, add parent_domain_matches_subdomains = yes
* In the smtpd_helo_restrictions section, add "check_helo_access hash:/etc/postfix/helo_access"
* In that helo_access file, list the offending "HELO/EHLOs" - in this case: OK

* Finally, run postmap /etc/postfix/helo_access to build the DB file, and restart postfix.

It does appear to be a problem more with some mail server admins than others. (

Here is a slightly old but still useful presentation from Ohio LinuxFest 2004 about dealing with spam in Postfix.
i think this is completely justified! stealing booze - hanging's too good for em!!!
I'm thinking of protesting "The Omen 666," because according to the bible, that's fiction too.
Also "Cars." That's animated. Totally fiction.

Give a man a fish, and you feed him for a day. Teach a man to fish, and you lose a steady customer.
Give Sandusky a child and he'll diddle for a day, give Sandusky a youth football camp and he'll diddle for a lifetime.
Thanks, found that very useful but as a very Linux newbie, if i wanted to encode to mp3 instead of ogg, what app could I use to do that and what would the command line be (see, I said I was a newbie :-)

Give a man a fish and you've fed him for a day; teach him how to fish and you've fed him for a lifetime; teach a man how to do something new on a computer and he'll be bugging you next month how to do it because he forgot. He's got no incentive to remember it, like staving off starvation. So don't ask me how to do that thing you want to do in Excel until you've fasted for 3 days!
Sell a man oregano and you have a customer for a day. Sell a man heroin and you have a customer for a lifetime.
Teach a man how to fish,and you ruin a potential business.
I like the idea to put the backup on /boot. I'll be adding /etc/fstab and the key files I use for other partitions. Obviously, I'll encrypt the file for safety.
Teach a man to fish, explain it hundreds of times, then a few more times,and he will become president of the USA and swear that he's never been taught to fish.
Please help me. I am really struggling to copy my header to an external drive.

I can't move the file because it is locked. How do I extract my header to save elsewhere?

Maybe xhost SI:localuser:ff && sudo -u ff firefox is better?
You don't need sudo rights and you don't have to edit sudoers file to archieve this now.

(Maybe this is easier in 2020. I tried in ~2012 to make this work, but without succes)

Now you need to add this line to "ff":s .bashrc

export DISPLAY=:0.0

and run as your normal user this:

xhost +local:

then just write: su ff

and then when you have a terminal as ff, you can start firefox or any other program, by: